The Science of Forgiveness: Understanding Its Definition and Impact

Forgiveness is a multifaceted concept that plays a crucial role in human health and relationships. It involves a conscious decision to release feelings of resentment or vengeance toward a person or group who has harmed you, regardless of whether they actually deserve your forgiveness. This article explores the definition of forgiveness, what it entails, and what it does not, based on current scientific research and psychological understanding.

Forgiveness, a concept often associated with religion, philosophy, and personal development, is increasingly being studied through the lens of science. This multidisciplinary exploration reveals that forgiveness is not just a moral or spiritual act but a complex psychological and physiological process with profound implications for mental and physical health.

Defining Forgiveness

Forgiveness is often misunderstood and conflated with concepts like condoning, excusing, or forgetting an offense. However, forgiveness is distinct from these notions. At its core, forgiveness involves a conscious decision to let go of resentment and thoughts of revenge toward someone who has caused harm. It is a process of changing one’s feelings and attitudes toward an offender, allowing for personal growth and emotional healing.

Dr. Robert Enright, a pioneer in the scientific study of forgiveness, defines it as “a willingness to abandon one’s right to resentment, negative judgment, and indifferent behavior toward one who unjustly injured us, while fostering the undeserved qualities of compassion, generosity, and even love toward him or her.” This definition highlights that forgiveness is a voluntary and intentional act, not a passive or obligatory response.

The Psychological Impact of Forgiveness

The psychological benefits of forgiveness are well-documented. Holding onto grudges and harboring resentment can lead to chronic stress, anxiety, and depression. These negative emotions can consume a significant amount of mental energy, leading to diminished cognitive function and impaired decision-making.

Forgiveness, on the other hand, can lead to emotional release and psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individuals who practice forgiveness experience lower levels of anxiety, depression, and anger. They also report higher levels of happiness, life satisfaction, and overall mental health.

Forgiveness therapy, an emerging field within psychology, uses forgiveness as a therapeutic tool to help individuals cope with trauma and emotional pain. By guiding individuals through the process of forgiveness, therapists can help them achieve emotional healing and resilience.

The Physiological Impact of Forgiveness

The benefits of forgiveness extend beyond mental health to physical well-being. Chronic resentment and stress can have deleterious effects on the body, contributing to conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and weakened immune function.

Research conducted by Dr. Fred Luskin at Stanford University has shown that forgiveness can lower blood pressure, reduce cortisol levels (a stress hormone), and improve heart rate variability, a measure of cardiovascular health. These physiological changes are associated with reduced risk of chronic illnesses and improved overall health.

Moreover, forgiveness can promote better sleep, reduce pain perception, and enhance overall physical functioning. This connection between forgiveness and physical health underscores the holistic nature of well-being, where mental and physical health are deeply intertwined.

Forgiveness in Social and Interpersonal Contexts

Forgiveness also plays a crucial role in social and interpersonal relationships. It fosters empathy, compassion, and understanding, which are essential for healthy and meaningful connections. By forgiving others, individuals can break the cycle of anger and retaliation, leading to more harmonious and supportive relationships.

In the context of restorative justice, forgiveness can be transformative. Restorative justice practices emphasize healing and reconciliation between offenders and victims. By facilitating forgiveness, these practices can help individuals move beyond their pain and rebuild trust and community cohesion. However, it is important to note that in restorative justice, forgiveness is purely voluntary and not a requirement for a successful restorative justice meeting. The primary goal is to address the harm and find a path to healing, with or without forgiveness.

The Challenges of Forgiveness

While the benefits of forgiveness are clear, the process itself can be challenging. Forgiveness requires individuals to confront their pain and vulnerability, which can be a daunting task. It also demands a shift in perspective, from seeing oneself as a victim to recognizing the humanity and fallibility of the offender.

Furthermore, forgiveness is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Some offenses may be too severe or traumatic for forgiveness to be a feasible or appropriate response. In such cases, seeking justice and setting boundaries may be more important for healing and recovery.


The science of forgiveness reveals that it is a powerful and multifaceted process with significant psychological, physiological, and social benefits. By understanding forgiveness through a scientific lens, we can appreciate its profound impact on human well-being and relationships. While the journey to forgiveness can be challenging, it offers a path to emotional freedom, healing, and resilience. As we continue to explore and embrace the science of forgiveness, we can foster a more compassionate and connected world.

What Forgiveness Is Not

Not Forgetting or Condoning

Forgiving does not mean forgetting the offense or excusing the wrongdoing. It’s possible to forgive while still recognizing the harm caused and taking steps to protect oneself from future harm.

Not Conditional on Apology

Forgiveness does not require the offender to apologize or make amends. It’s an internal process that benefits the forgiver, independent of the offender’s actions or awareness​ (Hopkins Medicine)​.

Not a One-Time Event

Forgiveness can be a complex process that may require time and effort. It’s not always a singular event but a journey that involves repeatedly choosing to let go of negative emotions and thoughts​ (Hopkins Medicine)​.

The Science Behind Forgiveness

Psychological and Emotional Healing for Victims

  • Reduced anger, fear, desire for vengeance towards offenders134
  • Decreased anxiety, depression, stress from the traumatic event13
  • Greater sense of resolution and healing from trauma134
  • Improved self-esteem and more positive outlook34

Restorative dialogues facilitate understanding of offenders’ perspectives and circumstances. This can dispel stereotypes, reduce anger, and allow victims to let go of resentment through forgiveness.134 Forgiveness enables victims to release emotional burdens tied to the offense.3

Restoration of Relationships

  • Potential for rebuilding trust and relationships with offenders13
  • Improved family and community relationships, reduced social alienation13

A core aim of restorative justice is repairing harm and restoring victims, offenders and the community to “right relationship.”13 When victims can forgive, it opens pathways for genuine reconciliation and rebuilding trust with offenders.13

Reduced Recidivism

  • Lower rates of repeat offenses by perpetrators13
  • Increased offender accountability, remorse and motivation to make amends134

When offenders take full responsibility, express remorse, and victims can forgive, it reinforces restorative values of accountability and reintegrating offenders as productive community members.13 This can reduce recidivist attitudes and behaviors.13While forgiveness cannot be forced, restorative processes provide a supportive environment where it may emerge through honest dialogue, offender accountability, and victims gaining understanding.1234 When forgiveness does occur, it yields significant psychological, relational and recidivism reduction benefits.


Forgiveness is a powerful construct that transcends mere emotional relief, extending its benefits to physical health, mental well-being, and the quality of interpersonal relationships. It is a choice and a process that involves recognizing and overcoming the hurt caused by others, not for their sake, but for one’s own peace and health. By embracing forgiveness, individuals can foster a more compassionate, healthy, and fulfilling life.

This article synthesizes insights from scientific research and psychological studies, providing a comprehensive understanding of forgiveness, its benefits, and its complexities.

Annotated Bibliography

Umbreit, M. S. (1998). Forgiveness: Restorative justice in the broadest context. Community Corrections Report, 6(1), 7-9.
This journal article discusses the role of forgiveness as an aspect of restorative justice, focusing on the dynamics between crime victims and offenders. It explores the importance of forgiveness, what it means, what is necessary for forgiveness to occur, who has standing to offer forgiveness, and the forms forgiveness can take. The author argues that forgiveness benefits victims by allowing them to let go of resentment and move towards healing.

Anderson, P. S. (2016). When justice and forgiveness come apart: A feminist perspective on restorative justice and intimate violence. Oxford Journal of Law and Religion, 5(1), 113-134.
This article examines forgiveness in restorative justice from a feminist perspective, particularly in cases of intimate partner violence. The author critiques how forgiveness can perpetuate patriarchal stereotypes and inequalities by pressuring women to internalize their feelings rather than seek accountability. The article argues for withholding forgiveness in some cases to prioritize justice and offender responsibility.

Armstrong, J. (2010). Restorative justice as a pathway for forgiveness: How and should it be done?. University of Cambridge Faculty of Law Research Paper, (11/2010).
This research paper examines restorative justice as a potential pathway to forgiveness for victims, drawing on empirical data and commentary. It discusses the implementation of restorative practices and victim forgiveness as an outcome. The paper explores whether and how forgiveness should be pursued in restorative processes while maintaining victim autonomy.

Acorn, A. (2004). Compulsory compassion: A critique of restorative justice. University of British Columbia Press.
This book chapter critiques the notion of “compulsory compassion” in restorative justice, arguing against pressuring victims to forgive offenders. The author contends that forgiveness should not be a goal or expectation in restorative processes, as it can re-victimize and undermine victims’ autonomy and healing process. The chapter advocates for restorative approaches that prioritize offender accountability over pushing for forgiveness.
These sources provide a range of perspectives on the role, benefits, and potential pitfalls of forgiveness within restorative justice frameworks, particularly concerning victim autonomy, feminist critiques, and balancing accountability with healing.