Ted Wachtel: An Innovator in Restorative Justice Education


Ted Wachtel, a figure of considerable influence in the restorative justice field, has primarily focused his energies on educational settings. Recognizing the limitations of punitive disciplinary measures in schools, Wachtel has advanced a transformative model that emphasizes dialogue, responsibility, and community building. This article seeks to explore his significant contributions, the methodology of implementing restorative practices in educational settings, and the broader implications for educators and policymakers alike.

The Philosophical Underpinning: Moving Beyond Punishment

Wachtel’s philosophy is deeply rooted in the broader tradition of restorative justice, as conceptualized by luminaries like Howard Zehr and Johan Galtung. He aims to replace punitive disciplinary practices in schools with those that build community and facilitate dialogue. His approach moves beyond merely punishing offenders to fostering environments where stakeholders—teachers, students, and parents—can come together to discuss, reflect, and collectively address problematic behavior (Zehr, 2002; Galtung, 1990).

Methodology: The Restorative Circle in Education

Among various techniques Wachtel introduced to schools is the “restorative circle.” This practice creates a safe space for open dialogue and gives all participants—especially those who have been wronged—an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings. Circles are often facilitated by trained staff, and they focus on understanding the root causes of conflicts or offenses, thereby facilitating genuine apologies and restitution. The methodology reflects influences from indigenous justice practices and has been endorsed by contemporary experts like Kay Pranis (Pranis, 2005).

Case Study: A Turnaround in an Urban High School

An illustrative example of Wachtel’s methods in practice can be found in an urban high school struggling with disciplinary issues and poor academic performance. Following the introduction of restorative circles and dialogue-based conflict resolution, the school witnessed a substantial drop in suspension rates and a parallel increase in academic performance. Most strikingly, the relationships among students and between staff and students improved noticeably, emphasizing the transformative potential of restorative practices.

Educational Impact: Beyond the Classroom

The ripple effects of Wachtel’s methodology extend beyond the classroom to inform broader educational policy. For example, districts adopting restorative practices report reductions in exclusionary discipline methods like suspensions and expulsions, which disproportionately impact marginalized student populations. Wachtel’s practices provide an alternative, underscoring the shift from a punitive to a more inclusive educational culture.

Broader Implications: Training and Policy

As school systems worldwide grapple with disciplinary issues, Wachtel’s methods offer both a philosophical shift and a practical toolkit. This impact is most evident in the growing number of training programs for educators focused on restorative practices, which include the nuances of effective facilitation, ethical considerations, and community engagement. Furthermore, several state and national educational policies have started to reflect Wachtel’s influence, by incorporating restorative approaches in their guidelines.

Cultural and Historical Context

The ethos of restorative justice that Wachtel applies in education has its roots in various ancient and indigenous cultures, from Native American peacemaking circles to the African Ubuntu philosophy. By adapting these age-old practices to the modern schooling context, Wachtel successfully bridges cultural and historical gaps, emphasizing the universality and timelessness of restorative justice principles.

Academic Reception and Criticism

While Wachtel’s work has received widespread academic acclaim, it’s essential to note the critical voices as well. Some scholars argue that restorative practices can be time-consuming and necessitate a level of administrative support that not all schools can afford. Others question the scalability of his models, pointing out that more research is needed to fully understand the long-term impacts (Morrison & Vaandering, 2012).


Ted Wachtel has emerged as a trailblazer in incorporating restorative justice principles into educational settings. His work offers a paradigm shift from traditional punitive measures to more holistic practices that emphasize community building, empathy, and dialogue. While challenges and criticisms exist, Wachtel’s innovations are undeniably shaping the future of educational policy and practice. His approach not only addresses immediate behavioral issues but, more importantly, fosters a nurturing environment conducive to the intellectual and emotional growth of students.


  • Zehr, Howard. “The Little Book of Restorative Justice.” Good Books, 2002.
  • Galtung, Johan. “Cultural Violence.” Journal of Peace Research, 1990.
  • Pranis, Kay. “The Little Book of Circle Processes.” Good Books, 2005.
  • Morrison, Brenda, and Dorothy Vaandering. “Restorative Justice: Pedagogy, Praxis, and Discipline.” Journal of School Violence, 2012.