Restorative Practices in Schools

Restorative practices in schools are an innovative and effective approach to managing conflict and building a positive school culture. Rooted in the principles of restorative justice, these practices focus on healing relationships and communities instead of merely punishing wrongdoers. By emphasizing empathy, understanding, and mutual respect, restorative practices in schools aim to address the root causes of behavior issues, improve student engagement, and foster a supportive learning environment.

Understanding Restorative Practices

Restorative practices are based on indigenous values and the understanding that relationships are central to building community, managing conflict, and repairing harm. They involve processes that restore relationships when harm has occurred, as well as proactive strategies to prevent harm and conflicts from happening in the first place.

Core Elements of Restorative Practices in Schools

  1. Restorative Conversations and Language: Using language that promotes inclusion, understanding, and respect. This involves active listening, empathy, and avoiding blame.
  2. Circles: Small or large group activities that facilitate dialogue, share experiences, and build relationships. Circles can be used for teaching, conflict resolution, community building, and decision-making.
  3. Restorative Conferences: Structured meetings between victims, offenders, and other affected parties to discuss harm, its impact, and steps to make amends and prevent future incidents.
  4. Peer Mediation: A process where trained student mediators help their peers resolve conflicts in a constructive and mutual manner.
  5. Restorative Justice Panels: Panels consisting of school community members who meet with students who have caused harm to discuss the impact and develop a restorative plan.

Benefits of Restorative Practices in Schools

  • Improved School Climate: Creates a more positive, inclusive, and respectful school environment.
  • Reduction in Bullying and Violence: Addresses underlying issues leading to conflict and provides alternatives to aggressive behavior.
  • Enhanced Student Engagement and Achievement: Students feel more connected and engaged in a supportive community, which can lead to improved academic outcomes.
  • Decreased Suspensions and Expulsions: By focusing on conflict resolution and repair of harm, schools can reduce reliance on exclusionary disciplinary actions.
  • Empowerment of Students: Students gain skills in communication, empathy, and problem-solving, empowering them to manage conflicts and contribute positively to their community.

Implementing Restorative Practices in Schools

  • Leadership Commitment: Successful implementation requires strong support and commitment from school leadership.
  • Professional Development: Training for staff in restorative principles, practices, and skills is crucial.
  • Community Engagement: Involving parents, guardians, and the wider community enhances the effectiveness and sustainability of restorative practices.
  • Policy and Procedure Integration: Integrating restorative practices into school policies and procedures ensures consistency and institutionalization.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation: Regular assessment of restorative practices helps in understanding their impact and areas for improvement.

Restorative Practices in the Classroom

Restorative Practices in the classroom focus on building a positive, inclusive, and respectful learning environment. This proactive approach aims to strengthen relationships between students and teachers, promote a sense of community, and enhance student engagement and accountability. Key components include:

  • Preventative Circles: Used to establish classroom norms, set goals, and discuss expectations collaboratively. These circles help build trust and mutual respect among students and between students and teachers.
  • Affirmative Practices: Acknowledging positive behaviors and achievements to reinforce a culture of respect and encouragement.
  • Conflict Resolution: Implementing restorative conversations and small-group circles to address conflicts before they escalate, promoting understanding and empathy.
  • Inclusive Decision-Making: Engaging students in decisions that affect the classroom environment and their learning, fostering a sense of ownership and responsibility.

The emphasis here is on creating a supportive educational atmosphere where all students feel valued and empowered to succeed.

Restorative Practices as a Discipline Framework

When applied as a discipline framework, Restorative Practices shift the focus from punitive consequences to repairing harm and restoring relationships after misconduct has occurred. This approach aims to address the root causes of behavior, understand the impact on affected parties, and involve the community in the healing process. Key elements include:

  • Restorative Conferences: Bringing together victims, offenders, and sometimes family members or other community members to discuss the harm caused and agree on steps to make amends.
  • Repairing Harm: Developing a restorative plan that focuses on how the offender can repair the harm caused to the victim and the community. This might include apologies, restitution, community service, or other actions.
  • Reintegration: Ensuring that after the harm is addressed, students who caused harm are reintegrated into the school community without stigma, emphasizing continued support and accountability.

This framework prioritizes accountability, healing, and the prevention of future harm, moving beyond mere punishment to address the needs of all involved parties.

Distinguishing Factors

  • Focus: Classroom practices are centered on building a positive community and preventing conflicts. Discipline frameworks focus on addressing and repairing harm after it has occurred.
  • Implementation: Classroom practices are integrated into daily routines and interactions, emphasizing ongoing relationship-building. Discipline frameworks are enacted in response to specific incidents of misconduct, involving structured processes.
  • Outcomes: The primary outcome of classroom practices is a supportive and engaging learning environment. The discipline framework aims to resolve conflicts, repair harm, and restore relationships, focusing on the well-being of both victims and offenders.

Challenges and Considerations

While restorative practices offer significant benefits, implementation can be challenging. Resistance to change, lack of understanding, and resource constraints can hinder progress. It’s important for schools to approach implementation strategically, with clear goals, ongoing training, and community involvement.


Restorative practices in schools represent a powerful shift towards a more empathetic, understanding, and respectful approach to conflict resolution and community building. By focusing on relationships and community, schools can create an environment where students feel valued, supported, and engaged. As this approach gains traction, it’s essential for educators, parents, and policymakers to work together to embrace and refine these practices, ensuring that schools can fully realize their transformative potential.

Other articles about Restorative Practices in Schools

  1. Introduction to Restorative Practices in Schools
  2. The Impact of Restorative Practices on Educational Outcomes
  3. Understanding the Difference between Restorative and Punitive Approaches
  4. Implementing Restorative Practices in the Classroom
  5. The Role of Teachers in Restorative Practices
  6. Restorative Practices and School Anti-bullying strategies
  7. Building Relationships through Restorative Practices
  8. Using Restorative Practices to Address Bullying and Conflict in Schools
  9. Restorative Practices and Trauma-Informed Care in Schools
  10. Measuring the Effectiveness of Restorative Practices in Schools.