Restorative Practices and Trauma-Informed Care in Schools 


The landscape of school discipline and mental health support has undergone a significant transformation over the past few decades. One of the most influential developments is the integration of restorative practices and trauma-informed care in educational settings. These dual approaches aim to create a holistic, supportive environment that addresses not just academic development but also the emotional and psychological well-being of students. This article delves into the interconnected nature of restorative practices and trauma-informed care, examining how the two paradigms work synergistically to improve educational outcomes and student well-being.

Theoretical Underpinnings

Restorative practices focus on building relationships and community, and repairing harm through inclusive dialogue and collaborative problem-solving. On the other hand, trauma-informed care aims to recognize the prevalence of trauma and its impact on individuals, integrating this understanding into policies and practices. Scholars like Susan Craig, who wrote “Trauma-Sensitive Schools,” have provided substantial theoretical groundings for incorporating trauma-informed methods into educational contexts. Similarly, thought leaders like Thalia González and Annalise Buth have advocated for restorative justice in schools through their seminal works.

Practical Applications

The marriage of restorative practices and trauma-informed care in schools typically manifests in a variety of ways. Schools adopting these approaches often replace traditional punitive disciplinary actions like suspensions and expulsions with restorative circles and peer-led initiatives. Trauma-informed care adds another layer to this, providing specialized support for students affected by trauma. Classroom management thus becomes not only about maintaining order but also about fostering an environment where all students, especially those with trauma histories, can thrive.

Case Study: Oakland Unified School District

One of the most celebrated examples of the successful implementation of restorative practices and trauma-informed care is the Oakland Unified School District in California. The district’s multi-tiered approach includes professional development for teachers in restorative practices, specialized training in recognizing and addressing trauma, and a robust set of student-led initiatives. As a result, the district has seen a notable reduction in suspensions and disciplinary issues, alongside an increase in student engagement and academic achievement.

Challenges and Criticisms

While the confluence of restorative practices and trauma-informed care offers a promising alternative to traditional disciplinary methods, it is not without challenges. Schools must commit significant resources for teacher training, program implementation, and continuous evaluation. Moreover, critics like Paul T. Hill have questioned the scalability of these approaches, especially in schools with limited resources. There’s also the argument that a singular focus on trauma might stigmatize certain students, thereby negatively affecting their educational experience.

The Role of Policy

For these approaches to become more widespread, policy intervention is often necessary. Both federal and state educational policies have begun to recognize the importance of mental health and emotional well-being. The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), for instance, provides a legal framework that allows for the integration of social and emotional learning into educational practices, opening doors for the implementation of both restorative and trauma-informed methodologies.

The Importance of Teacher Training

One cannot overstate the importance of adequate teacher training for the effective implementation of restorative practices and trauma-informed care. Professional development should extend beyond rudimentary training sessions to include ongoing support and mentorship. Several organizations and academic institutions offer specialized courses and certifications that aim to equip educators with the necessary tools to implement these practices effectively.

Cultural and Historical Context

The integration of restorative practices and trauma-informed care can also be understood in the broader cultural and historical context. Growing awareness and social acceptance of mental health issues, coupled with increasing criticism of the “school-to-prison pipeline,” have contributed to an environment ripe for alternative approaches to student discipline and support.


Restorative practices and trauma-informed care in schools represent a paradigm shift from punitive disciplinary actions to a more empathetic, holistic approach. These frameworks not only challenge the traditional views on discipline but also add layers of support for students who have experienced trauma. While challenges exist, particularly concerning resource allocation and scalability, the potential benefits — as evidenced by cases like the Oakland Unified School District — make a compelling case for the broader adoption of these approaches.


  • Craig, Susan E. “Trauma-Sensitive Schools: Learning Communities Transforming Children’s Lives.” Teachers College Press, 2016.
  • González, Thalia and Buth, Annalise. “Restorative Justice in Schools: A Research Review.” WestEd Justice & Prevention Research Center, 2019.
  • Hill, Paul T. “The Challenge of Scaling Successful Educational Reforms.” Education Next, 2016.