Restorative Justice in Schools: Strategies and Programs


Restorative Justice in Schools (RJS) is an evolving paradigm shift that seeks to replace punitive disciplinary measures with a more collaborative and healing approach. Drawing from broader restorative justice principles, RJS aims to repair harm, restore relationships, and reintegrate both victims and wrongdoers into the educational community. This article explores the history, methodologies, prominent thought leaders, and a compelling case study that illustrate the transformative potential of RJS.

Historical Context

Roots in Indigenous Practices

Restorative Justice itself has ancestral roots in indigenous traditions worldwide. Schools began incorporating these practices in the late 20th century as a response to the ‘zero-tolerance’ policies that led to increased suspensions and expulsions (Thorsborne & Blood, 2013).

Legislative Milestones

Various state policies, like California’s 2015 bill encouraging schools to adopt restorative methods, have institutionalized RJS at a legislative level (González, 2015).

Key Concepts and Thought Leaders

Restorative Circles

This strategy encourages open dialogue in a circle format, allowing participants to express their feelings and concerns in a safe environment (Pranis, 2005).

Peer Mediation

Students are trained to facilitate the resolution of conflicts among their peers, thus empowering them to be agents of their own justice (Morrison, 2005).

Thought Leaders

  • Kay Pranis: Known for her seminal work on restorative circles.
  • Brenda Morrison: A key advocate for restorative justice in educational settings.
  • Margaret Thorsborne and Peta Blood: Co-authors of several works on implementing restorative practices in schools.

Strategies and Programs

Whole-School Implementation

This comprehensive approach involves training for both teachers and students, often incorporating restorative justice into the curriculum (Morrison & Vaandering, 2012).

Targeted Interventions

For more severe conflicts, restorative conferences involving parents and other stakeholders may be arranged (Thorsborne & Blood, 2013).

Case Study: A Midwestern High School

In a high school grappling with high suspension rates and escalating conflicts, administrators introduced a restorative justice program. They trained a group of students and teachers as facilitators for restorative circles. Over a period of two years, the school saw a 30% decrease in suspension rates and improved academic performance. An increase in student engagement and teacher satisfaction was also observed (Ashley & Burke, 2017).

Contemporary Insights

Technological Tools

Edtech platforms are now providing virtual environments for restorative practices, although the effectiveness of these virtual interventions remains under study (Gregory et al., 2016).

Inclusivity and Intersectionality

There is growing awareness of the need to adapt RJS to different cultural and social contexts to ensure equitable outcomes for all students (Evans & Lester, 2013).

Conclusion and Academic Insight

Restorative Justice in Schools has moved from being a novel concept to a transformative approach deeply rooted in academic discourse and real-world applications. However, as scholars like Evans and Lester (2013) articulate, we need to extend our examination of RJS beyond the reduction of punitive measures to a nuanced understanding of how systemic inequities can shape restorative outcomes. Academic scrutiny must delve into the ethical obligations of implementing RJS in schools with varying demographic profiles and resources. It is not merely a disciplinary alternative; it is a reflection of the broader cultural, social, and ethical dimensions of justice and education.


  • Thorsborne, M., & Blood, P. (2013). Implementing Restorative Practice in Schools: A Practical Guide to Transforming School Communities. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • González, T. (2015). Socializing Schools: Addressing Racial Disparities in Discipline Through Restorative Justice. In D. J. Losen (Ed.), Closing the School Discipline Gap (pp. 151-165). Teachers College Press.
  • Pranis, K. (2005). The Little Book of Circle Processes. Good Books.
  • Morrison, B. (2005). Restoring Safe School Communities: A Whole School Response to Bullying, Violence, and Alienation. Federation Press.
  • Morrison, B., & Vaandering, D. (2012). Restorative justice: Pedagogy, praxis, and discipline. Journal of School Violence, 11(2), 138-155.
  • Ashley, J., & Burke, K. (2017). Implementing Restorative Justice: A Guide for Schools. Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority.
  • Gregory, A., Clawson, K., Davis, A., & Gerewitz, J. (2016). The Promise of Restorative Practices to Transform Teacher-Student Relationships and Achieve Equity in School Discipline. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 26(4), 325-353.
  • Evans, K., & Lester, J. (2013). Restorative Justice in Education: What We Know So Far. Middle School Journal, 44(5), 57-63.