Restorative Diversion Programs 


Restorative Diversion Programs have emerged as a transformative approach to justice, focusing on healing, rehabilitation, and community well-being. This innovative alternative to traditional punitive measures holds immense potential to address the root causes of criminal behavior and foster meaningful change. By bringing together offenders, victims, and the affected community, these programs offer a chance to repair harm, promote accountability, and create a path towards a better future.  

Restorative justice principles have a rich history, rooted in indigenous traditions and various cultural practices across the globe. The concept gained prominence in the modern criminal justice system during the late 20th century. In the 1970s, New Zealand introduced the Family Group Conference to involve families and communities in decision-making processes for young offenders. This marked a significant shift towards a more inclusive and holistic approach to justice. 

Case Studies of Existing Restorative Diversion Programs 

Case Study 1: Restorative Circle Program (United States) 

In a Midwestern city in the United States, a Restorative Circle Program was implemented to address juvenile offenses and promote community healing. One case involved Maya, a 17-year-old offender who was involved in a physical altercation with another student at her high school. Instead of pursuing formal charges, Maya was referred to the Restorative Circle Program. 

The program brought together Maya, the victim, their families, school officials, and trained facilitators in a restorative dialogue process. Maya and the victim had the opportunity to express their emotions, share perspectives, and understand the impact of their actions on each other and the school community. Maya acknowledged her role in the altercation and expressed remorse. During guided discussions, participants identified underlying issues such as bullying, peer pressure, and personal insecurities that contributed to the incident. The circle explored ways to address these issues and restore safety and trust in the school environment.  

As a result, Maya agreed to participate in conflict resolution workshops, undergo counseling for anger management, and engage in community service within the school. The victim expressed the desire for a sincere apology and a commitment from Maya to avoid similar behavior in the future. Over time, Maya successfully completed the program requirements, demonstrated improved behavior, and actively contributed to creating a more positive and inclusive school climate. The Restorative Circle Program facilitated healing, accountability, and meaningful change for both Maya and the victim. 

Case Study 2: Victim-Offender Mediation Program (Germany)  

In Germany, a Victim-Offender Mediation Program was implemented to address property crimes and promote restitution and reconciliation. One notable case involved Max, a 21-year-old offender who had burglarized a local business, resulting in significant financial loss. 

Instead of traditional legal proceedings, Max was referred to the Victim-Offender Mediation Program. The program facilitated a mediated dialogue between Max, the business owner, and a trained mediator. 

During the mediation session, Max listened to the business owner’s experiences, financial struggles resulting from the burglary, and the emotional impact it had on them. The business owner expressed a desire for restitution and a genuine understanding of the crime’s impact. 

Max took responsibility for his actions, expressed remorse, and demonstrated a willingness to make amends. With the mediator’s guidance, a restitution plan was developed, outlining specific actions for Max to compensate the business owner for the financial loss. 

Over the following months, Max diligently worked to fulfill the restitution plan. He secured employment and allocated a portion of his income to repay the business owner. Additionally, he volunteered his time to enhance the business’s security measures, contributing to its long-term safety. 

The Victim-Offender Mediation Program provided a platform for Max to comprehend the consequences of his actions, take responsibility, and actively participate in repairing the harm caused. The business owner expressed satisfaction with the process, feeling heard, and witnessing Max’s commitment to making amends.  

(Moore et al., 2018). 

Thought Leaders  

  • Howard Zehr: Howard Zehr is often considered the pioneer of the modern restorative justice movement. He is an American criminologist, educator, and author who has made significant contributions to the development and promotion of restorative justice principles and practices. Zehr’s book “Changing Lenses: A New Focus for Crime and Justice” is widely regarded as a foundational text in the field. 
  • Kay Pranis: Kay Pranis is an experienced restorative justice practitioner and trainer. She has worked extensively in the United States and internationally, facilitating restorative processes and training professionals in restorative justice principles. Pranis emphasizes the importance of circles and other restorative practices in building relationships and repairing harm. 
  • Mark Umbreit: Mark Umbreit is a professor and the founding director of the Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking at the University of Minnesota. He has played a key role in advancing restorative justice practices through research, training, and policy development. Umbreit has conducted numerous studies on the effectiveness of restorative justice interventions and has authored several influential publications in the field. 
  • Terry O’Connell: Terry O’Connell is an Australian practitioner and researcher who has made significant contributions to the field of restorative justice. He developed the Real Justice approach, which focuses on addressing the emotional and social needs of both victims and offenders. O’Connell has worked extensively with police departments and justice systems to implement restorative practices. 
  • Lorraine Stutzman Amstutz: Lorraine Stutzman Amstutz is an experienced mediator, trainer, and restorative justice practitioner. She has worked extensively in the field of victim-offender mediation and conflict resolution. Amstutz has authored several books on restorative justice, including “The Little Book of Restorative Discipline for Schools” and “The Little Book of Restorative Justice for Sexual Abuse.” 

Relevant History of Restorative Diversion Programs 

Restorative Diversion Programs have their roots in the development of restorative justice principles. In the 1960s and 1970s, scholars and practitioners began questioning punitive approaches to crime and sought alternatives that focused on repairing harm, addressing victims’ needs, and reintegrating offenders into the community. 

In the 1980s, Victim-Offender Mediation Programs gained prominence, providing a structured process for dialogue and reconciliation between victims and offenders. In the 1990s, Restorative Diversion Programs expanded to include a wider range of offenses and stakeholders, aiming to involve victims, offenders, and community members in addressing harm. Since the 2000s, Restorative Diversion Programs have continued to grow, with diverse models targeting specific populations and offenses. Research has shown positive outcomes, such as reduced recidivism rates, increased victim satisfaction, improved offender accountability, and stronger community relationships.  

Today, these programs are implemented and refined worldwide, reflecting the recognition of restorative justice principles’ value in promoting healing, rehabilitation, and community well-being as alternatives to punitive approaches in the justice system. 

Contemporary Insights 

  1. Holistic Approach: Restorative Diversion Programs should take a holistic approach that addresses the needs of all stakeholders involved, including victims, offenders, and the community. The programs should focus on repairing harm, promoting accountability, and fostering meaningful dialogue and understanding. 
  1. Inclusivity and Equity: It is essential to ensure that Restorative Diversion Programs are accessible and equitable for all participants. Efforts should be made to include marginalized groups, consider cultural diversity, and address power imbalances in the process. 
  1. Trauma-Informed Practices: Recognizing and responding to trauma is crucial in Restorative Diversion Programs. Trauma-informed practices help create a safe and supportive environment for participants, taking into account the potential trauma experienced by both victims and offenders. 
  1. Collaboration and Partnerships: Effective Restorative Diversion Programs require collaboration and partnerships among various stakeholders, such as justice agencies, community organizations, and service providers. Building strong networks and sharing resources can enhance program outcomes and sustainability. 
  1. Individualized Approaches: Restorative Diversion Programs should be tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of participants. Individualized plans and interventions can address underlying factors contributing to the offense and support personal growth and development. 
  1. Supportive Services: Providing access to supportive services is essential for the success of Restorative Diversion Programs. Offering counseling, educational support, vocational training, and community-based resources can help address the root causes of offending behavior and promote positive change. 
  1. Outcome Evaluation: Regular evaluation and monitoring of Restorative Diversion Programs are crucial to assessing their effectiveness and making informed improvements. Collecting data on participant satisfaction, recidivism rates, and program impact can guide evidence-based decision-making and program refinement. 
  1. Continuous Training and Professional Development: Restorative Diversion Programs require trained facilitators and practitioners who possess the necessary knowledge and skills. Ongoing training and professional development opportunities can enhance the quality of program implementation and ensure fidelity to restorative justice principles. 
  1. Community Engagement and Education: Engaging the broader community and educating the public about the principles and benefits of restorative justice is important. This can help foster a supportive environment, reduce stigma, and promote community ownership and participation in Restorative Diversion Programs. 


Restorative Diversion Programs offer a transformative path towards justice, emphasizing healing, accountability, and community engagement. By repairing harm, empowering victims, and rehabilitating offenders, these programs have the potential to create a more just and inclusive society. As we move forward, it is imperative to embrace the wisdom shared by thought leaders, learn from successful case studies, and work together to integrate restorative practices into our justice systems. By doing so, we can pave the way for a brighter and more compassionate future.